Introduction: What's the point of ethics? 

What’s involved?
What makes something moral?                     
Applying ethics 
Presenting a moral argument

01 Free to choose?         
What kind of freedom?           
Freedom and the State

How much freedom does morality need
02  What do we mean? 

Three kinds of language         
Some key terms           
Four theories about moral language
‘Is’ and ‘oug
03 Scepticism and relativism

A Machiavellian approach?    
Situation ethics ‘Post-truth’, alternative facts and fake news
Is society always right?           

04   Is it natural? 

 Does it have a ‘final cause’?   
Some features of ‘natural law’
How do you decide what is ‘natural’?   Applying ‘natural law’                        
Are we naturally good or bad?          
Evolution, nature and natural law  

05  Looking for results   
                     Dostoevsky’s dilemma
General problems with utilitarianism
Applying utilitarian arguments
Trolleys and the human brain     

06  The experience of moral choice    
                     Conscience                    The categorical imperative     
The Beginning and end of life
Conditioned and yet free?

07 Personal development and virtue  

What price integrity?
Personal growth        Nietzsche          
Virtue ethics     
Humankind, Marx and Freud
Gender issues
Diversity and equality

08 Law and order 

Society and moral choice
Rights and responsibilities     
In whose interest?    A social contract      Crime and punishment 
In self-defence?
Civil disobedience International issues If Nietzsche were a civil servant …   

09  Fairness and equality 

Ethical egoism
Is equality possible?
Selfishness as a policy
Business ethics
Media ethics

10  Religion and moral values 

How are religion and morality related?   The Euthyphro Dilemma 
The Basis for Religious Ethics  
Religious values and society
Religion and warfare
Is intention enough?  
Should religious freedom be restricted?      

Some conclusions 

Moral progress: illusion or necessary hope?
So where does this leave us?
The art of living

Taking it further      


If you are studying ethics at A Level, you may also be interested in...

ethical theory

On line...

There's nothing quite like the Stamford Encyclopedia for good philosophy, with valuable entries on ethics.






ethics for lifeEthics for Life

This is ethics with a personal twist. Its aim is to...

Explore the moral issues and arguments that direct our lives, express our values, and shape our future.

This is the 6th edition of my original 'Teach Yourself Ethics' book, now with additional sections to bring issues up-to-date and aimed at bringing out the personal relevance of a study of ethics.

If you've not yet bought this book, take a look at the Contents list on the left, or buying options on the right. If you already have it, you are probably here for...

Taking it further

If you want to explore some of these topics in more detail, here are a range of books you might find of interest...

The Oxford Handbook of The History of Ethics

Edited by Roger Crisp, OUP, 2015
This is a massive tome – with more than most people will ever need.   Set out historically (how else, given the title) it contains articles on the whole range of Western ethics from ancient Greece to the present day.  The only thing it lacks is any comparison with Eastern thought, where very different approaches to ethics developed in India and the Far East – represented by the various Hindu traditions, Buddhism, Confucianism and Daoism.  But, to be fair, this book is already enough of a weight to lug around, and one should not look for everything between two covers.
Iin the final section on applied ethics, there is reference to Bertrand Russell’s comment that Ethics is hardly to be considered philosophy, although it is generally regarded as a branch of it - a view that reflects so much about what philosophy had become in the 20th century, before the resurgence of ethical debate within the academic subject.
Conscience, egoism, utilitarian ethics, various aspects of Kantian thought – they are all here in this massive resource.  It doesn’t provide everything a student might need (which should include the awareness of constructing applied ethical arguments and – in a multi-cultural world – some awareness of the limited scope of Western thought) but it certainly delivers the solid historical groundwork a student needs for undergraduate work.
It’s probably one for the library, rather than for every student’s bookshelf – although the latter would benefit from it massively, provided that it is strong enough to take the weight.

Understanding Moral Sentiments 

Hilary Putnam, Susan Neiman and Jeffrey P Schloss (editors) Transworld Publishers, 2014.
This is a book that explores the origins and an explanation of morality in terms of evolutionary consciousness and social evolution.  It is about the moral instincts and moral compassion. The fundamental question that the book raises is this:

‘To what extent can we understand the roots and complexity of ethical judgements from a Darwinian perspective?’ 

That question is controversially given a response ‘Not very much’ in Putnam’s article.  But it is hugely important question to ask, particularly at a time when the philosophy of mind, as well as ethics, is challenged to sort out the relationship between the observations and measurements of science, and the experience of being a self, operating in a world in which moral convictions and sentiments exist and require of us some sort of response.
Putnam sees altruism and sympathy as preconditions of ethics, rather than part of ethics itself. His observations include the fact that from Aristotle onwards, the main concern with ancient thinkers was about the qualities that made up the good life, the values that were worth pursuing and so on, whereas from the Enlightenment the key question was equality. This raises the question of the extent to which what we see as reasonable, and therefore moral, is the result of social conditioning.
There is a lovely comments by Susan Neiman about the idea that all altruistic behaviour is motivated by a Darwinian attempt to selfishly maximise our own gene pool. She says ‘ If you are already convinced that every bit of altruistic behaviour is a disguised form of self-interest, you will find  way to argue that it could have been self-interested in the old days and went on spinning its wheels in ours. But all such convictions start from very strong, usually unstated assumptions that are continuous with those of Hobbes.’ She then contrasts this with the approach taken by Rousseau.
And here, discussing the value of morality in and for itself, she presents an example given by Kant:

‘Consider two greengrocers: one runs an honest business because he knows that cultivating a reputation for honesty will bring him more customers, while the other does the same because he values honesty in itself. Both may be acting in their own self-interest, but only one is acting because of it, and though we may never be able to discern a difference between them we understand the difference immediately. Since all of us are prone to self-deception, the difference in such a case in untestable, but it’s a difference on which morality depends.’ (p218)

She contrasts this will Steve Pinker’s assumption that we always act in our own self interest, even if our action is disguised as altruism.  Pinker sees any action that cannot be justified in this way as paradoxical and irrational.

The Righteous Mind: why good people are divided by politics and religion

  Jonathan Haidt,  Penguin, 2012
The title reflects Haidt’s view that we are naturally not just moral, but also moralistic and judgemental.
Haidt considers that we start with moral intuitions. Reasoning follows, and is a skill that we evolve in order to negotiate our social situations.  Like many other thinkers, he sees altruism as having developed in order to facilitate our group survival. We are divided from other groups, because our whole way of operating is based on groups. That’s how we see ourselves. No scope here to explore this book, but it offers much food for thought.

All Peter Singer's books are worth reading. In particular, his Practical Ethics (originally published in 1996, and with a third edition in 20122) is a good example of his clear and radical thinking, as is The Life you Can Save (2009). He presents the serious challenge posed by preference utilitarianism to any easy moral assumptions, and - whether one agrees with him or not - his arguments always stimulate serious reflection.


Among the host of other books, three older book that you really should not miss are:

Mackie Inventing Right and Wrong (1990) and Iris Murdoch Metaphysics as a Guide to Morals (1992)

Both of these address the fundamental question of how we understand right and wrong in the absense of externally imposed values.

Bernard Williams Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy (Routledge, 2006, but originally published in 1985), gives the context for more recent debates in ethics. He starts with Socrates' basic ethical question "How should I live?"











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You'll find plenty of additional material on ethics on the Notes for Students page, with topics including:

Kant's theory


Natural Law

Meta ethics

For other material on ethics, including quotes from this book, visit the Ethics subject page.


Many classical texts referred to in this book are available in paperback. See for example: